Spain has given its citizens with disabilities a choice whether to enroll in a mainstream school. Otherwise, it has special education institutions for them.
Under Royal Decree 696/1995, pupils with special educational needs can study in mainstream schools with mainstream curricula. Only when it is objectively established that the needs of these pupils cannot be properly met in a mainstream school is a proposal made for them to be educated in special schools.
The 1990 Organic Act on the General Organisation of the Education System (LOGSE), on the other hand, has regulated and governed special education within the general plan of education. Special education has been incorporated into the mainstream system and also introduces the concept of special educational needs.
A decade and two years later, a new framework—the 2002 Organic Act on the Quality of Education (LOCE)—has been established to give attention to those pupils with “specific educational needs.” They can attend mainstream schools with specialized classrooms, or ordinary groups in special schools according to their abilities.
Coinciding with the European Year of People with Disabilities, the “Act on Equal Opportunities, Non-Discrimination and Universal Accessibility for People with Disabilities” was passed. It complemented the 1982 Act on the Social Integration of People with Disabilities (LISMI).
The Organic Act on Education (LOE, 2006) has called on the public authorities to “carry out compensatory measures.” The ultimate goal should be a school for all, and it has taken into account how respect for basic rights and liberties can be achieved.
Spain’s latest regulation on the matter, the LOMCE (2013), follows the guidelines set seven years ago, considering the four types of specific educational support needs: students with special educational needs, gifted learners, those late entrees into the Spanish education system, and those with specific learning difficulties.
Moreover, there would be specialized specific teams and early intervention teams to detect, assess, and diagnose special educational needs. They would have to counsel, collaborate, and participate in the educational process of pupils with special educational needs.
Pupils who must be absent from school for prolonged or repeated periods of time for medical reasons could benefit from the mobile school support units or the school support units in the hospitals. Mobile special education teachers could go to pupils’ homes and mobile attention on the part of special education centers could be given.
“A world that recognizes the rights of the disabled, ensures that people with disabilities can be productive members of their communities and nations, and provides an inclusive and accessible environment, is a world that will benefit all of us — with or without disabilities.” ~ UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon
Video taken from the YouTube Channel of Wolter’s World